Ground Stone Work
Traditional ground stone work was accomplished by shaping with percussion, pecking into shape with a harder angular
stone, smoothing with finer grained sandstones, and polishing with animal fat and sand or other grit.  Hours upon hours of
work went into various axes, celts, gouges, birdstones, banner stones, pipes and adze forms.  I've made some
reproductions the old way as described above, so I can appreciate the process.

Offered here are ground stone reproductions finished with a combination of old and new processes.  I take the raw stones
down with a modern angle grinder tool, peck the entire surface to remove the modern tool marks, then smooth and polish
the old way with grit and sand stones.  In effect the moder grinder cuts the production time by more than half.  The end
result is the same because the pieces are finished with the traditional ways.  All pieces will be permenantly signed by me.
Here is one of my very first ground stone attempts with the above described process.  It's made
from NY graywackie material and replicates a gouge I saw in an Afton, NY collection.  It's perfect
in every way.  At 3/4 inches long, 2 inches wide, and a hair under and an inch and a half at it's
thickest part.
GS09-01 Gouge        $30.00
This is a great Adena Celt.  Perfectly shaped with great color and a sharp bit.  Whatever type of
stone this is doesn't take a high polish, but then again, some stones did not anciently either.  
This would make a great addition to any case of artifacts to dress it up a bit or to a nice frame of
Adena culture artifacts.  Ancient celts this nice are in the $100 price range, so you can own one
for a lot less and enjoy it just as much.  At a hair under 4 inches long, 2 1/4 inches wide at the
bit, and an inch at it's thickest part, this is a perfect celt.
GS09-02 Adena Celt        $40.00
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Here we have an Alaskan Ulu.  I made this one with hammerstone percussion to shape the slate
material appropriately, and then the rest was finished by hand.  The end product looks in color
and shape just like the originals that I studied.  The blade is 8 1/4 inches long and 3 inches
wide.  It is secured in the pine handle with my own pine pitch glue recipe.  Not many folks out
there are making Ulu replicas, so own this one while you can.
GS10-01 Huge Alaskan Ulu      $110.00
Anyone who collects Indian Artifacts covets finding a whole bannerstone.  Here in the northeast
they are rare to find.  Here I offer a replica made from black NY slate.  It is bit over 3 1/4 inches
wide and 2 1/4 inches tall.  The hole width is just a bit over a half inch.  There was a lot of hand
polishing hours wrapped up in this beauty.  Now you can own one at a fraction of the cost if it
were an artifact.
GS10-01 Winged Bannerstone  $50.00
The Archaic Lamoka Culture of New York State produced a unique
artifact called the Lamoka Beveled Adze.  Nowhere in America can you
find this distinctly beveled ground stone tool.  We believe that this tool
form was used to make dug-out canoes along with other woodworking
tasks.  This adze is made from a speckled hardstone found in Lisle, New
York.  It's a bit under 3 1/2 inches long and 1 3/4 inches wide.  The poll
end has been battered and pecked a bit just like the originals were.  I
would estimate that the hand grinding and polishing on this piece took
around 5 hours total.
GS10-05  Lamoka Beveled Adze $42.00
GS10-06  Lamoka Beveled Adze $35.00
The Archaic Lamoka Culture of New York State produced a unique
artifact called the Lamoka Beveled Adze.  Nowhere in America can you
find this distinctly beveled ground stone tool.  We believe that this tool
form was used to make dug-out canoes along with other woodworking
tasks.  This adze is made from a speckled hardstone found in Cobleskill,
New York.  It's a bit under 3 1/2 inches long and a hair over 1 1/2  
inches wide.  As see in the picture, there is an area toward the top
where the stone had a seam.  I left it in there as the Indians would have.
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